Phylum bryozoa. Bugula neritina forms flexible bushy colonies, branching biser...

Phylum Bryozoa (moss animals) Lower Ordovician – R

Phylum Hemichordata Class Graptolithina – graptolites. Lab 7: Fossils of the Paleozoic, and Paleoecology. Kingdom Animalia. Phylum Cnidaria – the corals. Tabulate. Rugose. Scleractinian. Phylum Bryozoa – bryozoans. Phylum Brachiopoda – brachiopods . Phylum Mollusca – molluscsphylum: 1 n (biology) the major taxonomic group of animals and plants; contains classes Types: show 48 types... hide 48 types... Pyrrophyta , phylum Pyrrophyta a division of lower plants comprising unicellular and biflagellate algae that form starchy compounds Protozoa , phylum Protozoa in some classifications considered a superphylum or a ... Bryozoa: [plural noun] a small phylum of aquatic animals that reproduce by budding, that usually form branching, flat, or mosslike colonies permanently attached on stones or seaweeds and enclosed by an external cuticle soft and gelatinous or rigid and chitinous or calcareous, and that consist of complex zooids each having an alimentary canal ...1 dic 2018 ... However, most bryozoans form colonies that can vary greatly in number, form, and size. Bryozoan biology. Each individual animal, or zooid, has a ...Identification: Pectinatella magnifica is a species of freshwater bryozoan in the class Phylactolaemata. Like other species of bryozoans (also known as Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals), the individual microscopic aquatic invertebrates (called a zooid) live directly on submerged surfaces in a colony (Ricciardi and Reiswig 1994, Wood 2010).At least 3,500 living species and 15,000 fossil species are known. Bryozoans are small animals (just large enough to be seen with the naked eye) that live exclusively in colonies. In fact, the Phylum Bryozoa is the only animal phylum in which all known species form colonies. The name comes from two Greek words, bryon (moss) and zoon (animal ...Bryozoa. Bryozoa, also known as Ectoprocta, is a major invertebrate phylum, whose members, the bryozoans, are tiny, aquatic, and mostly sessile and colonial animals. Also known as moss animals or sea mats, the colonial species of bryozoans generally build collective stony skeletons of calcium carbonate that are superficially similar to coral . The phylum Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) is comprised of approximately 6,000 living species of sessile, colonial, aquatic organisms and has an extensive fossil record that dates back to the Early Ordovician. There are two known classes of bryozoans, Gymnolaemata and Phylactolaemata.Phylum Nemertea. The Nemertea are colloquially known as ribbon worms or proboscis worms. Most species of phylum Nemertea are marine and predominantly benthic (bottom dwellers), with an estimated 900 known species. However, nemerteans have been recorded in freshwater and very damp terrestrial habitats as well. Bryozoans. Introduction. The Bryozoa, also known as Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals, are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals that resemble corals. They are found in marine, brackish and freshwater habitats. Marine species are common on coral reefs but a few occur in oceanic trenches, and others are found in polar waters..Phylum Bryozoa. Bryozoa are a group of aquatic (marine and freshwater) invertebrates that are colonial, meaning many individuals live together. These colonies can be in a …Farrapeira, Cristiane M R (2011) The introduction of the bryozoan <i>Zoobotryon verticillatum</i> (Della Chiaje, 1822) in northeast of Brazil: a cause for concern Gage, J D,Hughes, David J (2004) Benthic metazoan biomass, community structure and bioturbation at three contrasting deep-water sites on the northwest European continental marginAbstract. Less than one percent of marine natural products characterized since 1963 have been obtained from the phylum Bryozoa which, therefore, still represents a huge reservoir for the discovery of bioactive metabolites with its ~6000 described species. The current review is designed to highlight how bryozoans use sophisticated chemical ...Characteristics: Bryozoans, also known as moss animals, are colonial, with the expeption of a single genus. Many colonies form sheets covering rocky bottoms or algae, they are called encrusting bryozoans. Others build bush-like structures resembling small corals. They are hermaphrodites, they change sex during their life span.Ctenostome bryozoans are a small and still insufficiently investigated group of the phylum Bryozoa (Schwaha, 2020a ). Systematics currently divides ~350 recent …Genbank common name: bryozoans NCBI BLAST name: bryozoans Rank: phylum Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 5 (Invertebrate Mitochondrial)STUDIES ON MARINE BRYOZOA. XII. PORELLA MARY D. ROGICK Department of Biology, College of New Rochelle, New Rochelle, New York The purpose of the present study is (a) to report two species of Porella (Family Smittinidae, Order Cheilostomata, Phylum Bryozoa) from new Antarctic localities, (b) to bring their synonymy up to date, …Bryozoans in the Greenland Sea. Bryozoa is a phylum of small aquatic invertebrates that filter feed with tentacles lined with cilia. Most species are marine and live in tropical seas, although many are in temperate or cold seas, and some live in brackish or freshwater. Of the ~ 4000 extant species, all but one genus is colonial. Although bryozoans are a diverse phylum of aquatic invertebrates with a rich fossil record, very little has been written about bryozoan faunas from the latest Pleistocene at a time of rapid global change when temperatures increased dramatically and the sea-level rose. Two species of cyclostome and eight species of cheilostome bryozoans are here …(phylum Bryozoa, class Phylactolaemata). Feeding: Moss animals use a crown of tentacles to filter algae, detritus and microscopic organisms from the water.Phylum Bryozoa: Called the "moss-animals" this is the only large phylum of animals that are wholly colonial. Bryozoans produce a covering made of calcium carbonate, chitenous material, or mucous from which the individuals extend their lophophores for feeding. The colonies resemble and are easily confused with sessile hydroids.moss animal, also called bryozoan, any member of the phylum Bryozoa (also called Polyzoa or Ectoprocta), in which there are about 5,000 extant species. Another 15,000 species are known only from fossils. As with brachiopods and phoronids, bryozoans possess a peculiar ring of ciliated tentacles, called a lophophore, for collecting food particles suspended in the water.At least 3,500 living species and 15,000 fossil species are known. Bryozoans are small animals (just large enough to be seen with the naked eye) that live exclusively in colonies. In fact, the Phylum Bryozoa is the only animal phylum in which all known species form colonies. The name comes from two Greek words, bryon (moss) and zoon (animal ...Bryozoans. Introduction. The Bryozoa, also known as Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals, are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals that resemble corals. They are found in marine, brackish and freshwater habitats. Marine species are common on coral reefs but a few occur in oceanic trenches, and others are found in polar waters..bryozoan: [noun] any of a phylum (Bryozoa) of aquatic mostly marine invertebrate animals that reproduce by budding and usually form permanently attached branched or mossy colonies.Only animal phylum with an extensive fossil record that does not appear in Cambrian or late Precambrian rocks. All extinction events resulted in extinction of some bryozoan families. Extinction of two bryozoan orders at the end of Permian. The 2nd or 3rd most common fossil group during the Ordovician, after brachiopods.24 ago 2010 ... Category Archives: Phylum Bryozoa. Bugula californica: Spiral Bryozoan- Race ... Phylum Bryozoa, Species | Tagged Bryozoa · Disporella separata ...Bryozoa is thus a promising source for cytotoxic/anticancer agents, as well as antibiotics. Their active compounds have been covered in a series of reviews by Blunt et al. (e.g., [ 123 ]) in the journal Natural Product Reports , highlighting the trend of minimal MNP research efforts on this phylum so far.With an account of over 6.000 recent and 15.000 fossil species, phylum Bryozoa represents a quite large and important phylum of colonial filter feeders. This volume of the series Handbook of Zoology contains new findings on phylogeny, morphology and evolution that have significantly improved our knowledge and understanding of this phylum. It is a comprehensive book that will be a standard for ...General accounts of many important aspects of the Bryozoa are to be found in those works marked by an asterisk (∗) in the list of references. In his book Bryozoans, Ryland (1970), dealing with both living and fossil forms, gives an account of the structure, evolution, physiology, and ecology of the phylum. The Phylum Bryozoa (“moss animals”) is a group of minute (μm-mm) colonial tentacle-feeders found predominantly in marine habitats, but the taxon is also found in fresh waters. Of the c. 4000 global species, about 90 are found in inland habitats.Our ultrastructural study showed for the first time a variety of virus-like particles (VLPs) and supposed virus-related structures inside symbiotic bacteria in two marine …polyp, in zoology, one of two principal body forms occurring in members of the animal phylum Cnidaria.The polyp may be solitary, as in the sea anemone, or colonial, as in coral, and is sessile (attached to a surface).The upper, or free, end of the body, which is hollow and cylindrical, typically has a mouth surrounded by extensible tentacles that bear …With an account of over 6.000 recent and 15.000 fossil species, phylum Bryozoa represents a quite large and important phylum of colonial filter feeders. This volume of the series Handbook of Zoology contains new findings on phylogeny, morphology and evolution that have significantly improved our knowledge and understanding of this phylum. It is a comprehensive book that will be a standard for ...Stenolaemata 1,2. Bryozoa are also known as Sea Mats, or Moss Animals. Whilst they are only tiny invertebrates, typically 0.5mm long, they are actually quite commonly encountered. The problem lies in identifying one and knowing what it is you are looking at. They can form large colonies that are often confused with coral, or even algae.(phylum Bryozoa, class Phylactolaemata). Feeding: Moss animals use a crown of tentacles to filter algae, detritus and microscopic organisms from the water.Bryozoans are microscopic aquatic invertebrates that live in colonies. The colonies of different species take different forms, building exoskeletons (outer protective structures) similar to those of corals. Most colonies are attached to a structure such as a rock or submerged branch. Freshwater bryozoans' exoskeletons are gelatinous (like jelly) or chitinous (like the "shells" of insects ... Bryozoans are microscopic aquatic invertebrates that live in colonies. The colonies of different species take different forms, building exoskeletons (outer protective structures) similar to those of corals. Most colonies are attached to a structure such as a rock or submerged branch. Freshwater bryozoans' exoskeletons are gelatinous (like jelly) or chitinous (like the "shells" of insects ...Phylum Bryozoa Snapshot. Classes: Gymnolaemata, Phylactolaemata, Stenolaemata; Diversity: ~6,171 extant species, ~17,867 extinct species; Ecology: marine and freshwater, filter feeders; Key features of group: largely colonial, lophophore feeding aparatus, cryptic; Fossil Record: Ordovician to RecentBryozoa is one of the most puzzling phyla in the animal kingdom and little is known about their evolutionary history. Its phylogenetic position among the Metazoa remains unsettled, as well as its intra-phylum relationships. Here, we present the first comprehensive molecular phylogeny of Bryozoa based on the mitochondrial gene …Moss Animals. Moss animal, also called bryozoan, any member of the phylum Bryozoa (also called Polyzoa or Ectoprocta), in which there are about 5,000 extant species. Another 15,000 species are known only from fossils. As with brachiopods and phoronids, bryozoans possess a peculiar ring of ciliated tentacles, called a lophophore, for collecting ... Farrapeira, Cristiane M R (2011) The introduction of the bryozoan <i>Zoobotryon verticillatum</i> (Della Chiaje, 1822) in northeast of Brazil: a cause for concern Gage, J D,Hughes, David J (2004) Benthic metazoan biomass, community structure and bioturbation at three contrasting deep-water sites on the northwest European continental marginPhylum Bryozoa Bryozoans (also known as Phylum Ectoprocta) generally are sessile (attached to bottom) colonial invertebrates that use ciliated tentacles to capture suspended food particles. This group is primarily marine with more than 4000 species worldwide, about 50 of which are freshwater species ( Pennak, 1978 ). It is in fact representatives of the phylum Bryozoa the most commonly found attached to plastic debris, being the most species-rich and the most abundant in specimen number, as resulted in this study. This is expected …These organisms superficially resemble cnidarian hydroids and bryozoans (phylum Bryozoa), with the main body consisting of a cup-like calyx that bears a ring of 6 to 36 ciliated tentacles, attached on its dorsal surface to the substrate (or stolon in colonial species) by a long, thin stalk. The calyx and stalk are covered by a thin, collagenous ... Lophotrochozoa are also protostomes, in which the blastopore, or the point of invagination of the ectoderm (outer germ layer), becomes the mouth opening into the alimentary canal. This developmental pattern is called protostomy or “first mouth.”. Protostomes include acoelomate, pseudocoelomate, and eucoelomate phyla.Bryozoa. Bryozoans, also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or moss animals, are a phylum of small aquatic animals living in colonies. The colonies usually have a skeleton of calcium carbonate. Bryozoans have a long fossil history, starting in the Ordovician. In their life-style they resemble the polyps which form coral. Bryozoa. Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals. Typically about 0.5 millimetres (0.020 in) long, they are filter feeders that sieve food particles out of the water using a retractable lophophore, a "crown" of tentacles lined with cilia.Similarities of phoronids, bryozoans, and brachiopods: All have lophophores. True coelom, used as a hydrostatic skeleton. Simple, U-shaped digestive tube, complete with mouth and anus. Benthonic (bottom-dwelling), either mobile or sessile (attached). Phylum Phoronida (phoronid worms): Tube-dwelling worms with a lophophore surrounding the mouth ...It is also unclear whether the phylum Bryozoa is a monophyletic group (i.e., whether they include all and only a single ancestor species and all its descendants) because bryozoan evolutionary relationships to other phyla remain inexact. Bryozoans are primarily a marine group ranging from 4,000 to 4,500 recognized species.Jan 1, 2020 · The phylum Entoprocta is sometimes grouped with the phylum Ectoprocta (Bryozoa) because of certain similarities; but because these are superficial, this group is discussed in the separate Chapter 14. Limitations. In this chapter we recognize 35 species of freshwater bryozoans in the Neotropical region. A key exception is the 'missing' colonial lophotrochozoan phylum Bryozoa, in which six of the eight recognized orders belonging to the classes Stenolaemata and Gymnolaemata appear abruptly ...Bryozoans are a distinct group of water-dwelling, filter-feeding animals. Like corals, bryozoans form colonies of tiny individuals. They eat using a crown of fine tentacles called a lophophore to ...Previously Ectoprocta and Endoprocta were linked together as two classes under the phylum Bryozoa or Polyzoa because of the following similarities: (1) Presence of a crown of ciliated tentacles. (2) Presence of looped alimentary canal. (3) Similarity in larval stages. But such features occur in common in all the sessile animals.Phylum Bryozoa – Bryozoa are tiny filter-feeding colonial organisms which build a calcium carbonate structure which have varied appearances (lacy fans, corkscrews, and twig-like shapes are common). Phylum Brachiopoda – Brachiopods are shelled organisms which have a left-right symmetry across their valves (shells).most bryozoa brood their eggs externally or in body cavity some shed eggs into water larvae of some show polyembryony in which a single larva proliferates into several larvae larvae swim for a few months before settling Animals: Phylum Ectoprocta; Ziser Lecture Notes, 2015.3 6 Economic Importance 1. fossil bryozoa used extensively by petroleum9. Polymorphism is a common feature and physiological exchange takes place through the pores of the walls among the colony zooids. 10. Bryozoans are hermaphrodites. 11. Gonoducts are lacking in Phylum Ectoprocta. 12. Sperms are released into the coelom and exit through the pores in the lophophore tentacles. 13. Phylum Bryozoa Snapshot. Classes: Gymnolaemata, Phylactolaemata, Stenolaemata; Diversity: ~6,171 extant species, ~17,867 extinct species; Ecology: marine and freshwater, filter feeders; Key features of group: largely colonial, lophophore feeding aparatus, cryptic; Fossil Record: Ordovician to RecentLeft image: "Position of phylum Bryozoa within Lophotrochozoa based on the phylogenomic analyses of Nesnidal et al. (2013), showing bryozoans to be the sister …Ekologijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas. Bryozoa — noun marine or freshwater animals that form colonies of zooids • Syn: ↑phylum Bryozoa, ↑polyzoa • Hypernyms ...Phylum Bryozoa moss animals Bryozoa: information (1) Bryozoa: pictures (15) Class Gymnolaemata marine bryozoans and tubular bryozoans Gymnolaemata: pictures (10) Class Phylactolaemata freshwater bryozoansThis short account is an invited contribution to the Zootaxa special volume 'Twenty years of Zootaxa.' Zootaxa was first published on 28 May 2001. Between this date and December 2020, 116 papers were published in Zootaxa that mention Bryozoa, comprising mostly descriptions of new species and higher …It is worth mentioning that phylum Bryozoa has been erected by Ehrenberg (1831) based on samples collected from the Egyptian waters (Alexandria in the Mediterranean Sea, and Suez in the Red Sea). Moreover, the type species of Zoobotryon pellucidus stimulated Ehrenberg to propose a phylum “Bryozoa” to be separated from …Moss animal, Cristatella mucedo of phylum Bryozoa. The eggs of those species which do not brood their eggs, are much smaller (about 1 tenth the size) and much more numerous than the eggs of those species which do brood their eggs. Having been fertilised in the open sea, they become part of the plankton.1 dic 2018 ... However, most bryozoans form colonies that can vary greatly in number, form, and size. Bryozoan biology. Each individual animal, or zooid, has a ...At least 3,500 living species and 15,000 fossil species are known. Bryozoans are small animals (just large enough to be seen with the naked eye) that live exclusively in colonies. In fact, the Phylum Bryozoa is the only animal phylum in which all known species form colonies. The name comes from two Greek words, bryon (moss) and zoon (animal ...Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) is an aquatic phylum that comprises more than 6000 described recent and 15000 fossil species of epibiotic, active suspension-feeding coelomate invertebrates (Gordon, Taylor & Bigey, 2009; Bock & Gordon, 2013). Bryozoans are known from the beginning of the Ordovician and represent major components of most benthic ecosystems ...Bryozoans in the Greenland Sea. Bryozoa is a phylum of small aquatic invertebrates that filter feed with tentacles lined with cilia. Most species are marine and live in tropical seas, although many are in temperate or cold seas, and some live in brackish or freshwater. Of the ~ 4000 extant species, all but one genus is colonial.A key exception is the 'missing' colonial lophotrochozoan phylum Bryozoa, in which six of the eight recognized orders belonging to the classes Stenolaemata and Gymnolaemata appear abruptly ...Bugula. ( Oken, 1815) Bugula is a genus of common colonial arborescent bryozoa, often mistaken for seaweed. It commonly grows upright in bushy colonies of up to 15 cm in height. [1] [2]moss animal, also called bryozoan, any member of the phylum Bryozoa (also called Polyzoa or Ectoprocta), in which there are about 5,000 extant species. Another 15,000 species are known only from fossils. As with brachiopods and phoronids, bryozoans possess a peculiar ring of ciliated tentacles, called a lophophore, for collecting food particles suspended in the water.Diversity. The phylum Brachiopoda, also known as lamp shells, is a group of bilaterally symmetrical, coelomate organisms that superficially resemble bivalve molluscs.. Approximately 450 species of living brachiopods are currently known, and have traditionally been divided into two classes: Inarticulata (orders Lingulida and Acrotretida) and Articulata (orders Rhynchonellida, Terebratulida and ...Bryozoans are a phylum of microscopic, aquatic invertebrates that live in sessile colonies of genetically identical members. The individuals are not autonomous and are termed zooids. They grow as calcified or gelatinous encrusting masses or branching tree-like structures. Having said that, there are notable exceptions, including a genus of ...Study with Quizlet and memorize flashcards containing terms like Which one of the following terms applies to the phylum Arthropoda? a. coelomate b. radial symmetry c. deuterostome d. Parazoa e. diploblastic, What are the three animal phyla that dominate animal life on land? a. Cnidaria, Mollusca, Platyhelminthes b. Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Arthropoda c. Porifera, Arthropoda, Nematoda d ...Abstract. The phylum Bryozoa (Ectoprocta) is comprised of approximately 6000 living species of sessile, colonial, aquatic organisms and has an extensive ...Common Blue Damselfly (Enallagama cyathigerum), an insect, one of millions of species of invertebrates. Invertebrate is a term used to describe any animal without a backbone or spinal column. The group includes about 97 percent of all animal species; that is, all animals except vertebrates, (subphylum Vertebrata of the phylum Chordata), which ... Genbank common name: bryozoans NCBI BLAST name: bryozoans Rank: phylum Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 5 (Invertebrate Mitochondrial) There are approximately 4,000 species in the phylum Bryozoa, making it one of the major phyla. Colony forms vary among the different species, ranging from flat, encrusted sheets to folded, leaflike bushes.Moss Animals. Moss animal, also called bryozoan, any member of the phylum Bryozoa (also called Polyzoa or Ectoprocta), in which there are about 5,000 extant species. Another 15,000 species are known only from fossils. As with brachiopods and phoronids, bryozoans possess a peculiar ring of ciliated tentacles, called a lophophore, for collecting ...Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of simple, aquatic invertebrate animals, nearly all living in sedentary colonies.Typically about 0.5 millimetres (1 ⁄ 64 in) long, they have a special feeding structure called a lophophore, a "crown" of tentacles used for filter feeding.Most marine bryozoans live in tropical waters, but a few are found ...27 ago 2020 ... Phylum Bryozoa. April 2018. In book: Field Guide to the Offshore Marine Invertebrates of South Africa; Publisher: Malachite Marketing ...Our ultrastructural study showed for the first time a variety of virus-like particles (VLPs) and supposed virus-related structures inside symbiotic bacteria in two marine …Bryozoans (Ordovician to today with no peak period) are animals that live in a colony and excrete a skeleton to support themselves. Sometimes the skeleton is made of minerals, and sometimes it is made of chitin. Bryozoans are primarily marine, but are sometimes found in tidal or delta environments. Each animal in the colony is called a zooid.Phylum Bryozoa. Bryozoa are a group of aquatic (marine and freshwater) invertebrates that are colonial, meaning many individuals live together. These colonies can be in a …Bryozoa. Genbank common name: bryozoans NCBI BLAST name: bryozoans Rank: phylum Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 5 (Invertebrate Mitochondrial) Other names: heterotypic synonym. Ectoprocta. blast name. bryozoans.Our ultrastructural study showed for the first time a variety of virus-like particles (VLPs) and supposed virus-related structures inside symbiotic bacteria in two marine …Within marine invertebrates, an important source of bioactive compounds, which remains only partially explored, is the phylum Bryozoa. Currently, …The phylum Bryozoa is moderately diverse, estimated in 2013 to contain 5869 living species (Bock and Gordon 2013), and has a good fossil record dating back to the Early Ordovician (Taylor and ...Bryozoans, also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or moss animals, are a phylum of small aquatic animals living in colonies. The colonies usually have a skeleton of calcium carbonate. Bryozoans have a long fossil history, starting in the Ordovician. In their life-style they resemble the polyps which form coral.1.1 Sponges (Phylum Porifera) 1.1.1 Genus Astraeospongia (calcareous sponge) 1.1.2 Genus Hydnoceras (glass sponge) 1.2 Bryozoans (Phylum Bryozoa) 1.2.1 Genus Archimedes; 1.2.2 Genus Rhombopora; 1.3 Graptolites (Phylum Hemichordata) 1.3.1 Order Dendroidea (benthic graptolites) 1.3.2 Order Graptoloidea (planktic graptolites) 1.4 Corals (Phylum ...30 ago 2013 ... Phylum Bryozoa Ehrenberg, 1831. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal Biodiversity: An Outline of Higher-level Classification and Survey of Taxonomic .... Only animal phylum with an extensive fossil record thaDec 18, 2020 · El filo bryozoa está conformado por tres clases: The marine alga Lyngba can produce an acute dermatitis characterized by intraepidermal vesiculation. 40 An allergic contact dermatitis can be produced by a completely different species, Alcyonidium diaphanum, a member of the phylum Bryozoa, which produces a seaweed-like animal colony known as the sea chervil or Dogger Bank moss. 5,41 These sea ... Mar 5, 2020 · Moss animal, Cristatella mucedo of phylum Bry With an account of over 6.000 recent and 15.000 fossil species, phylum Bryozoa represents a quite large and important phylum of colonial filter feeders.Bryozoa are a group of aquatic (marine and freshwater) invertebrates that are colonial, meaning many individuals live together. These colonies can be in a variety of shapes that include massive (solid), foliaceous (sheet-like), dendroid (branching), or fenestrate (windowed-shape) ( UCMP ). The phylum Bryozoa appeared in the Ordovician...

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